Why is palm oil an issue?
Worldwide demand for palm oil has increased sharply over the last few years. With 54 million tons in 2011, it is the most widely produced vegetable oil worldwide. It has the highest yield of any oil crop and is the cheapest vegetable oil to produce and refine.
Its properties make it highly versatile in the food and chemical industries. It has a high melting point, making it smooth and easy to spread. Palm oil is contained in thousands of supermarket products.
More than 90 percent of the palm oil produced is used to manufacture food products, cosmetics, detergents and candles.
How does palm oil destroy the rainforests?
Since oil palms need a rainforest climate – consistently high humidity and temperatures – and a lot of land, plantations are often established at the expense of rainforests. About 90 percent (2011) of the world’s palm oil is currently being produced in Malaysia and Indonesia. Indonesia’s oil palm plantations alone already cover nine million hectares, an area the size of the state of Maine. 26 million hectares are projected for 2025.
According to the report "The Last Stand of the Orangutan- State of Emergency: Illegal Logging, Fire and Palm Oil in Indonesia's National Parks" (published in 2007 by the United Nations Environment Program UNEP), palm oil plantations are currently the leading cause of rainforest destruction in Malaysia and Indonesia: "A scenario released by UNEP in 2002 suggested that most natural rainforest in Indonesia would be degraded by 2032. Given the rate of deforestation in the past five years, and recent widespread investment in oil palm plantations and biodiesel refineries, this may have been optimistic. New estimates suggest that 98% of the forest may be destroyed by 2022, the lowland forest much sooner."
Today, rainforest area the equivalent of 300 soccer fields is being destroyed every hour. This gives rise to numerous problems for the climate, environment, and people living in the forest:
- CO2 emissions – In preparing rainforest land for a palm oil plantation, the most valuable trees are cut down and removed first. What remains is cleared by burning. If the forest was on peatland – as is the case in much of Indonesia – the land is drained. Peatlands store vast quantities of carbon, and the conversion of a single hectare of Indonesian peatland rainforest releases up to 6,000 tons of CO2. Tropical deforestation is currently responsible for about 18 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, making it a significant contributor to climate change (see 4. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC).
- Loss of biodiversity – Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands are among the world's most species-rich environments and home to numerous endangered plants and animals, such as orangutans, Sumatran tigers and Bornean rhinos. The destruction of natural habitats deprives the animals of the basis for their existence, causing an irreversible loss of biological diversity.
Orangutans are particularly vulnerable because they are dependent on large contiguous forest areas. In search of food, they often get lost in the plantations, where they are regarded as pests. According to the Centre for Orangutan Protection (COP), at least 1,500 orangutans were clubbed to death by palm oil plantation workers in 2006 alone. According to the UN, there is a risk that no wild orangutans will remain outside of protected areas by 2020.
Why is palm oil not listed as an ingredient on most products?
Only a few manufacturers – mostly in the organic sector – label their products as containing palm oil and palm fat. Most companies disguise it, referring to it as “vegetable oils and fats”.
|English and latin names for palm oil||Likely to be palm oil|
|Palm oil kernel||Vegetable oil (if the product contains saturated fats, it's most likely palm oil)|
|Palmitate / palmate||Ingredient lists containing “stearate, stearyl”|
|Elaeis gunieensis||Ingredient lists containing the words “cetyl, cetearyl”|
|Hydrated palm gylcerides hexadecanoic||Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), sodium laureth sulphate, sodium dodecyl sulphate, (SDS or NaDS) sodium|
|Palmitic acid||Calcium stearoyl lactylate steareth -2, steareth -20 emulsifier 422, 430-36, 465-67, 470-8, 481-483|
|The largest palm oil producers:||Major palm oil traders:||The largest individual consumers of palm oil:|
|Wilmar, IOI and Sinar Mas||Cargill, Archer Daniels Midland (ADM)||Unilever, Nestlé, Procter & Gamble and Henkel
According to its own figures, the Unilever Group alone consumes 1.6 million tons of palm oil every year (2008).
One way consumers can protect the rainforest is to avoid palm oil. For a list of palm oil-free products, visit
What about organic palm oil?
Several companies have pledged to use only organic palm oil. While this might work for some companies, worldwide demand cannot possibly be covered by organic palm oil alone.
Moreover, Rainforest Rescue has determined that one supplier of organic palm oil, the Daabon group in Colombia, has been responsible for serious accidents and spills, excessive use of water, pollution, deforestation and the eviction of small farmers from their land. Vast oil palm monocultures also extend across thousands of hectares of land in that Latin American country. In the view of Rainforest Rescue, Daabon definitely does not deserve the organic label for ecological agriculture and fair trade.
What about sustainable palm oil (RSPO)?
Major palm oil producers and consumers established the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) in cooperation with the WWF. Members include Wilmar International, Cargill, Nestle and Unilever, and the label association is chaired by a senior executive of the Unilever Group (Dove, Knorr, Rama, etc.), one of the world's biggest purchasers of palm oil that consumes an annual 1.4 million tons. The aim of the industry label is to promote the production and sale of palm oil even further and restore its social acceptability.
The RSPO does not rule out the clearing of rainforest. Only primary and “high conservation value” (HCV) forests have been considered off-limits for palm oil plantations under the label since November 2005. An internationally recognized definition of HCV areas has not been established, however, and the transitions between primary and secondary rainforests are blurred in practice.
Most of the social aspects that have been defined by the RSPO are general principles and human rights, the compliance with which should be self-evident. Nevertheless, farmers and indigenous people are displaced from their lands, threatened and arrested if they resist the land grabs. Compliance with the criteria is not reviewed adequately, and violations are rarely punished. Wilmar, the world’s leading palm oil company, is involved in 100 land conflicts and human rights violations in Indonesia alone. Sinar Mas, another major RSPO player, has cleared tropical rainforest all over the country for its palm oil plantations, and is still expanding rapidly.
Climate protection is a consideration that the RSPO ignores completely. Greenpeace International considers RSPO to be “little more than greenwash”. In our view, the label essentially deceives the public.
Aren’t plantations forests, too?
Uniform oil palm monocultures have a very low level of biodiversity and are no comparison to the richness of a rainforest. Clearing tropical forests and converting them into plantations destroys the habitat of an enormous variety of animal and plant species.
How does palm oil affect local people?
Plantations are often put in place without consulting the people who live in the forest or depend on the land for their livelihoods. In Indonesia alone, where 45 million people live in forests, the palm oil industry is responsible for around 5,000 land and human rights conflicts. If the affected people resist, they are often forcibly displaced, like the inhabitants of the village of Sungai Beruang in Indonesia.
Even the people in the adjacent settlements of the plantations frequently lose their livelihoods. Not only do they rely on the forest as a natural water reservoir and source of food, but also as protection against landslides and floods. The chemicals used on palm oil plantations pollute the soil and water, thus making other forms of agriculture impossible.
Is palm oil healthy?
Almost half of palm oil consists of saturated fats, which are known to cause high cholesterol and heart disease, and are generally regarded as a cause of obesity. Palm kernel oil, which is often used for cocoa icings, ice cream and caramel, contains up to 80 percent saturated fat.
Palm oil contains fatty acid esters (3-MCPD and glycidol fatty acid esters) that are considered carcinogenic. Concentrations of such hazardous substances are especially high in refined palm oil, an ingredient in infant formula. Popular chocolate hazelnut and chocolate spreads also tend to contain a lot of palm oil. Children are especially vulnerable in this regard because of their low body weight in relation to the quantity of harmful substances they consume. The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) has issued a warning against consuming the substances contained in palm oil.
Is palm oil used in fuels as well?
Many countries require the blending of “biofuels” by law. In 2010, the mandatory share in the EU was 6.25 percent. While it is currently only possible to add small quantities of palm oil to fossil diesel, that is set to change in the near future. The properties of palm oil can be modified by hydrogenation, a chemical treatment. Neste, a state-owned Finnish company, has patented a hydrogenation process and intends to flood the European market with cheap palm-oil diesel. In preparation, Neste Oil has built three huge palm oil refineries in Singapore, Rotterdam and Helsinki.
Eight certification schemes have been approved in the EU to ensure that only “sustainably” produced biofuels are used. Furthermore, biofuels must attain a CO2 reduction of at least 30 percent over fossil fuels. Yet both the certification schemes and the CO2 calculations are seriously flawed and incomplete.
Many analyses and environmental impact reports on palm oil and biodiesel neglect emissions related to the management of plantations, such as those released in the production and distribution of the large amounts of fertilizer needed. Transporting the oil and the refining process also cause emissions. The United Nations and researchers from around the world are calling for an immediate stop to biofuels.
What can I do?
Now that you are aware of the issues related to palm oil, do something about it:
- Tell others about the problem.
- Call on your political representatives to advocate the mandatory labeling of palm oil.
- Do not buy products containing palm oil (for example, by referring to this list of palm-oil-free products), but make sure that your boycott sends a clear message by letting manufacturers and your elected representatives know why you are not buying them.
- Demand transparency about the sources of palm oil in all consumer products.
The spread of palm oil plantations at the expense of natural forest must be stopped. You can make a difference as a consumer by making your voice heard.
Related action alerts
Tell the EU to ban biofuel!
One of the worst environmental disasters of our time is unfolding in Indonesia: palm oil companies are torching vast rainforest areas to expand their plantations. The EU’s biofuels policy is fanning the flames, with more than 1.6 million tons of palm oil ending up in European vehicles every year. Tell the EU to stop biodiesel NOW!191,018 supporters
Cameroon: NO to land grabbing for palm oil!
6,000 small farmers and their families in Cameroon have had their livelihoods wiped out by Socfin, a Luxembourg-based company that grabbed their land for plantations. Please tell Socfin and major shareholder Bolloré to respect their rights and return their land.98,274 supporters
Related donation alerts
Urgent: Palawan’s activists need our help
The situation on the Philippine island of Palawan is deteriorating: those openly opposed to the destruction of valuable ecosystems for plantations are receiving death threats. Yet the people are determined to stand up against land grabbing by agribusiness firms being backed by the government. Please help them to protect Palawan’s forests.
Borneo: environmentalists need our support
“The current trend of converting rainforest into palm oil plantations is devastating our country. Our people cannot provide for themselves any longer; endangered species such as the orangutans are doomed to die." Our Partner Nordin asks for financial support to realize his action plan to save Indonesia's nature.
May 27, 2013
Verdict in Indonesia: Government must return ancestral landsThe indigenous peoples of Indonesia and its advocacy group, AMAN, have scored a great success: the Constitutional Court ruled that the government must recognize the land rights of forest dwellers. It may no longer class their customary forests as “state forest areas” and lease them to loggers or plantation operators.
Jan 13, 2014
Indonesia: heavy fine for palm oil company for slash-and-burnA court in the Aceh province in northern Sumatra sent a strong signal against the slashing and burning of rainforests: the palm oil company PT Kallista Alam has been sentenced to pay a fine of approximately 9 million US dollars as well as 21 million US dollars for reforestation of Tripa's destroyed swamp forest.
May 25, 2012
Tripa: Orangutan forest is spared of palm oil plantation
Thanks to international pressure on the Indonesian government, the concession of the palm oil company PT Kallista Alam has been revoked. The area has once again been declared part of an official nature reserve. Rainforest Rescue collected 45,239 signatures and presented them to Indonesian authorities. But the struggle for the orangutans in Tripa continues
Jun 6, 2013
Cameroon: Government is stopping deforestationThe U.S. company Herakles Farms wants to destroy 70,000 hectares of rainforest for its huge palm oil project. Illegal clearings have already started. The authorities have now stopped the company's activities and seized the logging machinery in the rainforest.
May 3, 2014
A tangle of conflicts: the dirty business of palm oilDer Spiegel, Germany’s leading weekly news magazine, reported the story behind our Murder and Mayhem for EU Biofuels campaign on its international website. Read the article in English here.